Southeastern Asia, along the northern coast of the island of Borneo, bordering the South China Sea and Malaysia. Close to vital sea lanes through South China Sea linking Indian and Pacific Oceans; two parts physically separated by Malaysia; the eastern part, the Temburong district, is an exclave and is almost an enclave within Malaysia

Area total  5,765 sq. km (land 5,265 sq km; water 500 sq km)

Land boundaries 266 km

Coastline 161 km

Capital City: Bandar Seri Begawan.

Etymology:  Named in 1970 after Sultan Omar Ali SAIFUDDIEN III (1914-1986; "The Father of Independence") who adopted the title of "Seri Begawan" (approximate meaning "honored lord") upon his abdication in 1967; "bandar" in Malay means "town" or "city"; the capital had previously been called Bandar Brunei (Brunei Town)

Climate: tropical; hot, humid, rainy

Terrain: flat coastal plain rises to mountains in east; hilly lowland in west

Elevation: highest point Bukit Pagon 1,850 m; lowest point South China Sea 0 m


Population:  471,103 (July 2021 est.)

Nationality: Bruneian(s)

Languages: Malay (Bahasa Melayu) (official), English, Chinese dialects

Ethnic Groups: Malay 65.7%, Chinese 10.3%, other 24% (2019 est.)

Brunei is officially Muslim, and Malay is the official language.  The country follows an official Malay national ideology, Malay Islamic Monarchy, which promotes Malay language and culture, Islamic values, and the monarchy.  Only seven of Brunei’s native groups are recognized in the constitution and are defined as “Malay” – Brunei Malays, Belait, Kedayan, Dusun, Bisayak, Lun Bawang, and Sama-Baiau. 

Religions: Muslim (official) 78.8%, Christian 8.7%, Buddhist 7.8%, other (includes indigenous beliefs) 4.7% (2011 est.)


0-24 years:  39%
25-54 years: 47%
55+ years: 14%

Median age:  31 years

Urbanization - 79% of total population (2021)



conventional long form: Brunei Darussalam
conventional short form: Brunei

Independence: 1 January 1984 (from Great Britian)

National holiday: National Day, 23 February (1984); note - 1 January 1984 was the date of independence from the UK, 23 February 1984 was the date of independence from British protection; the Sultan's birthday, 15 June

Government Type: Absolute Monarchy or Sultanate

Flag Description

Yellow with two diagonal bands of white (top, almost double width) and black starting from the upper hoist side; the national emblem in red is superimposed at the center; yellow is the color of royalty and symbolizes the sultanate; the white and black bands denote Brunei's chief ministers; the emblem includes five main components: a swallow-tailed flag, the royal umbrella representing the monarchy, the wings of four feathers symbolizing justice, tranquility, prosperity, and peace, the two upraised hands signifying the government's pledge to preserve and promote the welfare of the people, and the crescent moon denoting Islam, the state religion; the state motto "Always render service with God's guidance" appears in yellow Arabic script on the crescent; a ribbon below the crescent reads "Brunei, the Abode of Peace"

National anthem

name: "Allah Peliharakan Sultan" (God Bless His Majesty)
lyrics/music: Pengiran Haji Mohamed YUSUF bin Pengiran Abdul Rahim/Awang Haji BESAR bin Sagap
note: adopted 1951

National symbol(s): Royal parasol; national colors: yellow, white, black


petroleum, petroleum refining, liquefied natural gas, construction, agriculture, aquaculture, transportation

Exchange rate:  1 USD = 1.34 Brunei Dollar (BND), 2021 est


International: country code - 673

Internet country code - .bn

Mobile cellular subscriptions: 574,799 (125.73 per 100 inhabitants, 2019 est.)
Internet users total: 426,234 (95% of population, 2018 est.)

SOURCE: CIA World Factbook