Southeastern Asia, bordering the Andaman Sea and the Bay of Bengal, between Bangladesh and Thailand. Strategic location near major Indian Ocean shipping lanes; the north-south flowing Irrawaddy River is the country's largest and most important commercial waterway

Area total 676,578 sq. km (land 653,508 sq km; water 23,070 sq km)

Land boundaries 6,522 km (Bangladesh 271 km, China 2129 km, India 1468 km, Laos 238 km, Thailand 2416 km)

Coastline 1,930 km

Capital City:  Rangoon (Yangon); note - Nay Pyi Taw is the administrative capital

etymology: Rangoon (Yangon) is a compound of "yan" signifying "enemies" and "koun" meaning "to run out of" and so denoting "End of Strife"; Nay Pyi Taw translates as: "Great City of the Sun" or "Abode of Kings"

Climate: tropical monsoon; cloudy, rainy, hot, humid summers (southwest monsoon, June to September); less cloudy, scant rainfall, mild temperatures, lower humidity during winter (northeast monsoon, December to April)

Terrain: central lowlands ringed by steep, rugged highlands

Elevation: highest point: Gamlang Razi 5,870 m; lowest point: Andaman Sea 0 m


Population:  57,069,099 (July 2021 est.)

Nationality: Burmese

Languages: Burmese (official)
note: minority ethnic groups use their own languages

Ethnic Groups: Burman (Bamar) 68%, Shan 9%, Karen 7%, Rakhine 4%, Chinese 3%, Indian 2%, Mon 2%, other 5%
note: government recognizes 135 indigenous ethnic groups

Religions: Buddhist 87.9%, Christian 6.2%, Muslim 4.3%, Animist 0.8%, Hindu 0.5%, other 0.2%, none 0.1% (2014 est.)


0-24 years:  43%
25-54 years: 43%
55+ years: 14%

Median age:  29 years

Urbanization - 31% of total population (2021)

Population concentrated along coastal areas and in general proximity to the shores of the Irrawaddy River; the extreme north is relatively underpopulated



conventional long form: Myanmar
conventional short form: Myanmar
local long form: Pyidaungzu Thammada Myanma Naingngandaw (translated as the Republic of the Union of Myanmar)
local short form:  Myanma Naingngandaw

Independence: 4 January 1948 (from Great Britain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 4 January (1948); Union Day, 12 February (1947)

Government Type: Parliamentary Republic

Administrative Divisions

7 regions (taing-myar, singular - taing), 7 states (pyi ne-myar, singular - pyi ne), 1 union territory

regions: Ayeyarwady (Irrawaddy), Bago, Magway, Mandalay, Sagaing, Tanintharyi, Yangon (Rangoon)

states: Chin, Kachin, Kayah, Kayin, Mon, Rakhine, Shan

union territory: Nay Pyi Taw

Flag Description

Design consists of three equal horizontal stripes of yellow (top), green, and red; centered on the green band is a large white five-pointed star that partially overlaps onto the adjacent colored stripes; the design revives the triband colors used by Burma from 1943-45, during the Japanese occupation

National anthem

name: "Kaba Ma Kyei" (Till the End of the World, Myanmar)
lyrics/music: SAYA TIN

National symbol(s): chinthe (mythical lion); national colors: yellow, green, red, white


agricultural processing; wood and wood products; copper, tin, tungsten, iron; cement, construction materials; pharmaceuticals; fertilizer; oil and natural gas; garments; jade and gems

Exchange rate:  1 USD = 1,730 Myanmar Kyat (MMK), 2021 est


International: country code - 95

Internet country code - .mm

Mobile cellular subscriptions: 63,877,526 (113 per 100 inhabitants, 2019 est.)
Internet users total: 17,064,985 (31% of population, 2018 est.)

SOURCE: CIA World Factbook