Southeastern Asia, islands between Malaysia and Indonesia.  Focal point for Southeast Asian sea routes

Area total 719 sq. km (land 5709 sq km; water 10 sq km)

Land boundaries 0 km

Coastline 193 km

Capital City: Singapore

Climate: tropical; hot, humid, rainy; two distinct monsoon seasons - northeastern monsoon (December to March) and southwestern monsoon (June to September); inter-monsoon - frequent afternoon and early evening thunderstorms

Terrain: low-lying, gently undulating central plateau

Elevation: highest point Bukit Timah 166 m; lowest point Singapore Strait 0 m


Population:  5,866,139 (July 2021 est.)

Nationality: Singaporean

Languages: English (official) 48.3%, Mandarin (official) 29.9%, other Chinese dialects (includes Hokkien, Cantonese, Teochew, Hakka) 8.7%, Malay (official) 9.2%, Tamil (official) 2.5%, other 1.4%; note - data represent language most frequently spoken at home (2020 est.)

Ethnic Groups: Chinese 74.3%, Malay 13.5%, Indian 9%, other 3.2% (2020 est.)

note: data represent population by self-identification; the population is divided into four categories: Chinese, Malay (includes indigenous Malays and Indonesians), Indian (includes Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, or Sri Lankan), and other ethnic groups (includes Eurasians, Caucasians, Japanese, Filipino, Vietnamese)

Religions: Buddhist 31.1%, Christian 18.9%, Muslim 15.6%, Taoist 8.8%, Hindu 5%, other 0.6%, none 20% (2020 est.)


0-24 years:  28%
25-54 years: 51%
55+ years: 21%

Median age:  36 years

Urbanization - 100% of total population (2021)



conventional long form: Republic of Singapore
conventional short form: Singapore

etymology: name derives from the Malay word "singa" (lion) and "pura" (city) to describe the city-state's leonine symbol

Independence: 9 August 1965 (from Malaysian Federation)

National holiday: National Day, 9 August (1965)

Government Type: Presidential Republic

Administrative Divisions
No first order administrative divisions; there are five community development councils: Central Singapore Development Council, North East Development Council, North West Development Council, South East Development Council, South West Development Council (2019)

Flag Description

Two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; near the hoist side of the red band, there is a vertical, white crescent (closed portion is toward the hoist side) partially enclosing five white five-pointed stars arranged in a circle; red denotes brotherhood and equality; white signifies purity and virtue; the waxing crescent moon symbolizes a young nation on the ascendancy; the five stars represent the nation's ideals of democracy, peace, progress, justice, and equality

National anthem

name: "Majulah Singapura" (Onward Singapore)
lyrics/music: ZUBIR Said
note: adopted 1965; first performed in 1958 at the Victoria Theatre

National symbol(s): lion, merlion (mythical half lion-half fish creature), orchid; national colors: red, white


Industries: electronics, chemicals, financial services, oil drilling equipment, petroleum refining, biomedical products, scientific instruments, telecommunication equipment, processed food and beverages, ship repair, offshore platform construction, entrepot trade

Exchange rate:  1 USD = 1.34 Singapore Dollar (SGD), 2021 est.


International: country code - 65

Internet country code - .sg

Mobile cellular subscriptions: 9,043,300 million (157 per 100 inhabitants, 2019 est.)
Internet users total: 5,286,665 (88% of population, 2018 est.)

A wealthy city-state, Singapore has a highly developed ICT infrastructure; government supported near universal home broadband penetration and free public access to wireless network

SOURCE: CIA World Factbook