Southeastern Asia, bordering the Gulf of Thailand, Gulf of Tonkin, and South China Sea, as well as China, Laos, and Cambodia

Area total 331,210 sq. km (land 31,070 km (land 31,070 sq km; water 21,140 sq km)

Land boundaries 4,616 km (Cambodia 1,158 km, China 1,297 km, Laos 2,161 km)

Coastline 3,444 km (excludes islands)

Capital City: Hanoi (Ha Noi)

etymology: The city has had many names in its history going back to AD 1010 when it first became the capital of Imperial Vietnam. In 1831 it received its current name, Ha Noi ,meaning "between the rivers", referring to its geographic location.

Climate: Tropical in south, monsoonal in north with hot, rainy season (May to September) and warm, dry season (October to March)

Terrain: Low, flat delta in south and north; central highlands, hilly, mountainous in far north and northwest.

Elevationn: Highest point (Fan Si Pan 3,144 m); lowest (South China Sea 0m

Geo notes:

Extending 1,650 north to south, the country is only 50 km across at its lowest point

Son Doong in Phong Nha-Ke Bang National Park is the world's largest cave.  It is the largest known cave passage in the world by volume, measuring a total of 38.5 million cu m.


Population: 102,789,598 (July '21 est.)

Nationality: Vietnamese

Languages: Vietnamese (official), English (increasingly favoured as a 2nd language), French, Chinese, Khmer, mountain area languages (Mon-Khmer and Malayo-Polynesian)

Ethnic Groups: Kinh (Viet) 85.3%, Tay 1.9%, Thai 1.9%, Muong 1.5%, Khmer 1.4%, Mong 1.4%, Nung 1.1%, other 5.5% (2019 est.).  There are 54 ethnic groups are recognized by the Vietnamese Government

Religions: Catholic 6.1%, Buddhist 5.8%, Protestant 1%, other 0.8%, none 86.3% (2009 est.)


0-24 years:  29%
25-54 years: 47%
55+ years: 24%

Median age:  39 years

Population Distribution: Although Vietnam has one of the highest population densities in the world, the population is not evenly dispersed, with the South China Sea and Gulf of Tonkin, with the Mekong Delta (in the south) and the Red River Valley (in the north) having the largest concentrations of people

Urbanisation: 38% of total population (2021) 

Major Cities population: 8.838 million Ho Chi Minh City, 4.875 million HANOI (capital), 1.703 million Can Tho, 1.341 million Hai Phong, 1.157 million Da Nang, 1.046 million Bien Hoa (2021)



conventional long form: Socialist Republic of Vietnam
conventional short form: Vietnam
local long form: Cong Hoa Xa Hoi Chu Nghia Viet Nam
local short form: Viet Nam

etymology: "Viet" is an ethnic self identification dating to a second century B.C. kingdom and "nam" refers to its location in relation to other Viet kingdoms 

Independence: 2 September 1945 (from France)

National holiday: Independence Day (National Day), 2 September (1945)

Government type:  Communist state

Administrative Divisions
58 provinces (tinh, singular and plural) and 5 municipalities (thanh pho, singular and plural)

Provinces: An Giang, Bac Giang, Bac Kan, Bac Lieu, Bac Ninh, Ba Ria-Vung Tau, Ben Tre, Binh Dinh, Binh Duong, Binh Phuoc, Binh Thuan, Ca Mau, Cao Bang, Dak Lak, Dak Nong, Dien Bien, Dong Nai, Dong Thap, Gia Lai, Ha Giang, Ha Nam, Ha Tinh, Hai Duong, Hau Giang, Hoa Binh, Hung Yen, Khanh Hoa, Kien Giang, Kon Tum, Lai Chau, Lam Dong, Lang Son, Lao Cai, Long An, Nam Dinh, Nghe An, Ninh Binh, Ninh Thuan, Phu Tho, Phu Yen, Quang Binh, Quang Nam, Quang Ngai, Quang Ninh, Quang Tri, Soc Trang, Son La, Tay Ninh, Thai Binh, Thai Nguyen, Thanh Hoa, Thua Thien-Hue, Tien Giang, Tra Vinh, Tuyen Quang, Vinh Long, Vinh Phuc, Yen Bai

Municipalities: Can Tho, Da Nang, Ha Noi (Hanoi), Hai Phong, Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon)

Flag Description

Red field with a large yellow five-pointed star in the center; red symbolizes revolution and blood, the five-pointed star represents the five elements of the populace - peasants, workers, intellectuals, traders, and soldiers - that unite to build socialism

National anthem

name: "Tien quan ca" (The Song of the Marching Troops)
lyrics/music: Nguyen Van CAO

National symbol(s)

yellow, five-pointed star on red field; lotus blossom; national colors: red, yellow


Industries:  food processing, garments, shoes, machine-building; mining, coal, steel; cement, chemical fertilizer, glass, tires, oil, mobile phones

Exchange rate:  1 USD = 22,750 Dong (VND), 2021 est.


International: country code - 84

Internet country code - .vn

Mobile cellular subscriptions: 136,230,406 (135 per 100 inhabitants, 2019 est.)

Internet users: 68,267,875 (70% of population, 2018 est.)

SOURCE: CIA World Factbook